Author Archives: John rao

Cabling Cisco Devices

Cabling Cisco Devices :- Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) is a cable that has four pairs of wires twisted inside it to eliminate electrical interference. UTP cables are connected using RJ-45 connectors that have eight connector pins. The data equipment that is used for internetworking is classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE e.g. router interfaces) and Data Communication… Read More »

DDOS Attack Taxanomy & DDOS Attack Countermeasures

DDOS Attack Taxanomy :-  Flood Attack :-  In a flood attack, attackers send a very high volume of traffic to a system so it cannot examine and allow permitted network traffic. For example, an ICMP flood attack occurs when a system receives sufficient ICMP ping commands that it uses all of its resources to send… Read More »

TCP Three way handshake

TCP Three way handshake :- The TCP three-way handshake in Transmission Control Protocol (also called the TCP-handshake; three message handshake and/or SYN-SYN-ACK) is the method used by TCP set up a TCP/IP connection over an Internet Protocol based network. TCP’s three way handshaking technique is often referred to as “SYN-SYN-ACK” (or more accurately SYN, SYN-ACK, ACK) because there… Read More »

Patch Panel keystone jack instructions

Patch Panel keystone jack instructions :- A panel of network ports contained together, usually within a telecommunications closet, that connects incoming and outgoing lines of a LAN or other communication, electronic or electrical system. In a LAN, the patch panel connects the network’s computers to each other and to the outside lines that enable the LAN to connect… Read More »

Internet Security Necessary for Global Technology Economy

Today’s internet security challenges are real and significant.  We want governments to detect and disrupt terrorist networks before they inflict harm on our society, our citizens, and our systems of government.   We also want to live in countries that respect their citizens’ basic human rights.  The tension between security and freedom has become one the most… Read More »

What are VTP Modes and How is it Advertised?

What are VTP Modes and How is it Advertised? There are three modes of operation for VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Server allows creation, modification, and deletion VLANs and specify other configuration parameters, such as VTP version and VTP pruning, for the entire VTP domain. VTP servers advertise their VLAN configuration to other switches in the same VTP domain and… Read More »

What is a Linux/ Unix Shell?

What is a Linux/ Unix Shell? Shell is an Interface between an User and Kernel. And it interprets High Level Language into Low Level Languages which is understood by the Kernel.  There are several different shells available for Unix/Linux. One can use these shells, if they are available, on your system and switch between different shells. Different… Read More »