You can set up an interconnecting network with the static route configuration. The problem for such configuration is when a fault occurs to the network, the static route cannot change automatically to steer away from the node causing the fault, if without the help of an administrator. In a relatively simple network, you only need to configure the static routes to make the router work normally. The proper configuration and usage of the static route can improve the network performance and ensure the bandwidth of the important applications.
All the following routes are static routes:
- Reachable route: A normal route is of this type. That is, the IP packet is sent to the next hop using the route marked by the destination. It is a common type of static routes.
- Unreachable route: When a static route to a destination has the “reject” attribute, all the IP packets to this destination will be discarded, and the originating host will be informed destination unreachable.
- Blackhole route: If a static route to a destination has the “blackhole” attribute, the outgoing interface of this route is the Null 0 interface regardless of the next hop address, and all the IP packet addressed to this destination are dropped without notifying the source host.
Default route is very useful in the networks. Suppose that there is a typical network, which consists of hundreds of routers. In that network, far from less bandwidth would be consumed if you put all kinds of dynamic routing protocols into use without configuring a default route. Using the default route could provide an appropriate bandwidth, even not achieving a high bandwidth, for communications between large
numbers of users.
IP address and mask The IP address and mask are in a dotted decimal format. As “1”s in the 32-bit mask is required to be consecutive, the dotted decimal mask can also be replaced by the mask-length (which refers to the digits of the consecutive “1”s in the mask).
Next hop address and NULL interface When configuring a static route, you can specify the next-hop to decide the next hop address. In fact, for all the routing items, the next hop address must be specified. When IP layer transmits a packet, it will first search the matching route in the routing table according to the destination address of the packet. Only when the next hop address of the route is specified can the link layer find the corresponding link layer address, and then forward the packet according to this address.
Networking diagram of the static route configuration example
1 Configure the static route for Ethernet Switch A
[ Switch A] ip route-static 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 22.214.171.124
[ Switch A] ip route-static 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52
[ Switch A] ip route-static 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 220.127.116.11
2 Configure the static route for Ethernet Switch B
[ Switch B] ip route-static 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 22.214.171.124
[ Switch B] ip route-static 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52
[ Switch B] ip route-static 184.108.40.206 255.255.255.0 220.127.116.11
3 Configure the static route for Ethernet Switch C
[ Switch C] ip route-static 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 22.214.171.124
[ Switch C] ip route-static 126.96.36.199 255.255.255.0 188.8.131.52
4 Configure the default gateway of the Host A to be 184.108.40.206
5 Configure the default gateway of the Host B to be 220.127.116.11
6 Configure the default gateway of the Host C to be 18.104.22.168